by Drs. Like Wu, Xiaojuan Wang and Bo Cheng
The morbidity and severity of brain trauma are both on the top of the list in many kinds of nervous system diseases. According to the American Association of Trauma statistics, there are about 500,000 people admitted to a hospital suffering from craniocerebral trauma every year, 75000-90000 of them die, and most of patients are healthy young people who were left with a permanent disability.
Pathological changes of brain trauma
Symptoms of sequelae of traumatic brain injury
Classification: awake patients; soon restored patients (headache and dizziness after mild head trauma); delayed syncope after head trauma; sleepiness; headache and trance; dementia; temporary traumatic paraplegia, blindness and migraine; traumatic permanent paralysis, delayed paralysis; persistent coma; post-traumatic epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, post-traumatic extrapyramidal and cerebellar disease; Boxing - drunk encephalopathy (boxer dementia), post-traumatic hydrocephalus; cognitive and psychiatric disorder after trauma etc; all of above may cause persistent symptoms.
Following medical development, people realize that the cells are the foundation and guarantee of life; healthy cells are the foundation of a healthy body. "Stem cells implantation" is a hot topic for the medical area,"The new discovery of stem cell research" is Top 1 in the "The world achievements of Science TOP 10, 1999". As far as we know, besides good treatment outcomes in leukemia, diabetes and in tumors, stem cell implantation gradually attracts people´s attention in brain areas which can treat sTBI and sequelae of stroke.
The neural stem cell implantation that treats sTBI has a good outcome because the neurons and glial cells, which differentiate from stem cells, can secrete many kinds of neurotrophic factors to improve microenvironment of brain and start sequential expression of regeneration genes, damaged axonal re-growth again. Meanwhile, they produce a variety of extracellular matrix; fill the cavity left from the brain injury, provide support for the regeneration of axons; supplement the neurons and glial cells which are lost after injury. Then the remaining demyelination nerve fibers and newborn nerve fibers form a new medullary sheath; maintaining a completeness of nerve fibers function. Then they assist in a rehabilitation training to promote the growth and repair of stem sells which were implanted into the body, which significantly reduce sequelae and improve sequelae symptoms, improving the life quality of the patients.
Stem cell implantation into the body via IV or lumbar puncture to avoid patient undergoing the craniotomy operation, and reduce the occurrence of complications, shorten the patient´s hospitalization, then reduces the hospitalization expense. Neural stem cell implantation treatment is a kind of safety, economic, effective treatment for sTBI. Stem cell is an undifferentiated immature cell which shows weak cell surface antigen expression, patient´s own immune system has low recognition ability for this kind of immature cell, they can not determine stem cells´´properties, and this is why stem cells implantation can avoid organ transplant immune rejection and allergic reaction, to ensure implantation is safe for patients.